INFORMATION SECURITY

Computer security began immediately after first mainframes were developed. Successful organisation has multiple layers of security in place: i.e. Physical, Personal, Operations, Communications, network & information. Security is a balance between protection and availability. Sec SDLC [General System Development Life Cycle] is a methodology for the design and implementation of an information system in an organisation.

Information is considered to be the Backbone of the Modern world. So the need for protection is also important. Ethical hackers use the same methods to test and bypass a systems defence, but rather than taking advantage of any vulnerabilities found, they document them & provide actionable advice how to fix them so that the organisation can improve its overall security.

Let’s go a little back, and get introduced to art and science of writing hidden message in such a way that none other than sender and the recipient suspects the existence of the message. It can be also called information smuggling. It is called Steganography! It has a Greek origins and means “concealed writing”. Steganos means “Covered or Protected”. Graphei meaning “Writing”. So it is the practice of concealing message or information within other non-secret text or data.

For Detailed we recommend this DEFCON video to make it more clear!

While we are looking at YouTube videos, i strongly recommend the following video by Mr. Pavan Duggal taking about Cyber-law and Indian I.T. acts 👨‍⚖️⚖

Some mental notes you can make by watching above video:

India’s technology act 2000. Chapter 11 not only specify cyber-crime in India & their respective punishment in India, but also this particular legislation has amended the Indian penal code in such a manner to meet various offences under the Indian penal code, in sync with the requirement of the digital platforms. Now if in case u want to steal any computer source code or computer source documents then Be alerted because this activity is itself a cyber crime under sec 65 of the IT Act 2000. The same is punishable with 3 years imprisonment and ₹ 5 Lakh. Earlier the IT act 2000 made only Hacking a crime, but later 2008 amends came with much broader umbrella of computer offences. Like unauthorised task on any computers come within the ambit of these offences. Also 2008 amends says that if you actually publish or transmit content which is sexually explicit then you are further inviting an exposed to section 67-A , which is further an offence punishable with 5 years of imprisonment and fine. Earlier India was not concerned about child pornography as it thought it would be covered under the offense of pornography, But 2008 amends made it an offense. Not only publishing or transmitting but visiting a website that relates to child pornography it’s a serious offence punishable with 5 years of imprisonment and ₹ 5 lakh fine.

Also if you try to exploit the privacy of a person by capturing the images of private parts of a person without his/her knowledge, it’s an offense and is punishable with 3 years of imprisonment & ₹ 5 lakh fine. Also 2008 ammneds has added some new offence or example if you if you transmit any information using a computer which is offensive or has menace character it is a different offence under 66-A. If you try to misuse digital signature for fraudlent purpose then also its an offence under section 72 of the IT Act.

Identity theft offense is punishable with 3 years of imprisonment and fine under section 66-C. Also if u indulge in any activity the relates to cyber terrorism, it is a serious offense made punishable with life imprisonment and fine.

Hope this video was informative and might add something to you knowledge bank!!!

Corona Virus (data.df)

Under initiative of @darkfractal.info of “Indexing and Sharing #data related ideas across the internet”, we are sharing top posts we found on Corona Virus.

For more and accurate information on CORONA VIRUS, we suggest you to go on WHO’s website. Ignore WhatsApp University and online post shares.

Source: Data Is Beautiful

We also found this video explaining how actually Corona Virus works, its a must watch!

Source: Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell

Decentralised IoT and Block Chain

IoT is no more a new term in today’s technological era. It has indeed revolutionised thousands of personal and professional ecosystems.
However, under the fascinating name of Internet of Things (IoT), we often overlook some of the key issues that already had or may arise with the growing needs and demands. The current IOT system relies on a centralized clinch of communication models involving centralized cloud databases/servers to identify & authenticate different devices attached to it, which seems to throw a great deal to us. But, will it be able to respond effectively to the growing need of the gigantic IOT world of tomorrow? And what about the expenses to install such large IOT system involving a huge number of devices in it. Ever thought what would happen if someday, the whole cloud server collapses or the centralized database encounters a failure? Won’t it be better if instead of two adjacent devices communicating via internet gets to communicate directly with each other?

Who’s the saviour here?
The answer to all such issues is the Decentralised IOT.

The Decentralized IoT is a heterodox method for holding up a communication. Moreover, unlike communications methods with centralized servers, it works on an entire network of computers such that there is no single point of vulnerability and won’t allow any single entity to control the network. Bitcoin was the first to bring this technology into the limelight as it was the first successful cryptocurrency that works on the brilliant decentralized network of computer systems. Bitcoin runs on BlockChain.

What is a BlockChain?

The blockchain is actually a digital ledger which records the data or the transaction made in bitcoin or cryptocurrency in a chronological manner. Originally, Block Chain was meant to power the Bitcoin, however, it is capable of doing much more than that.
The blockchain is minuscule of whole distributed ledger technologies that can be programmed to record and track anything of value, may it be financial data or medical health reports or any regular stats. Blockchains have indeed transformed the way of our communications.

Why Blockchains?
Here are few simplified reasons for which Blockchains proves to have a number of advantages over other technologies:-

1) The Way It Stores and Tracks Data:-
Blockchains stores information in batches called Blocks. These blocks are linked together in a chronological manner to form a continuous line, or better say, in a chain of data blocks.
If any change is intended in any particular record in a block then we don’t need to rewrite it, instead a new block is created which stores the information about the change in the respective block. Every change is recorded as with a creation of a new block in the ledger and thus it can easily be checked whenever required.

2) It Created Trust In The Data:-
Blockchain was designed to be decentralized and distributed across a large set of computers over the network. This decentralizing of the data and information reduces the ability for data tampering. How does it happen? Here are the few steps that are being followed:-
Firstly, a cryptographic puzzle must be solved to create a block.
The node which solves the puzzle shares the solution to all the nodes/computers on the network, as the proof-of-work.
The network verifies the puzzle solution for the block and if satisfied the block is added to the ledger.
The combination of all these enables verification of the block from each computer thus implying trust on each block of the chain.

3) No More Intermediaries:-
As the network builds trust for us, we can now directly rely on our data in real-time thus cutting down the intermediaries. As already discussed the current IoT technology relies on a single centralised server to authenticate and store data for and from different devices connected. However, with the use of Blockchain, the blocks of data has already been verified and so, it doesn’t need to be authenticated from any of the intermediate stations. The devices can directly communicate to each other knowing that the nodes are already authenticated and are truthful as they form a part of chain providing the restriction on any possibility for the data to get tempered. This will not only reduce time but also saves a lot amount of capital for us.

Blockchain & IoT
Blockchains, when coupled with IoT, brings a better way of its implementation. The devices enrolled under IoT will no longer have to communicate through the internet. They can directly communicate and access data over devices. Gone are the days, when IoT had huge installation and maintenance costs, now decentralized IoT along with Blockchains is the new solution. It has created a more and broader and clear picture of the progress in this field. This type of technology will no doubt, revolutionize the way we access, verify and transact our data and communicate with each other thus creating an unbelievable technological ecosystem for a bright future.