Atmosphere (Air) Sensors in AgriTech

There are many sensors used in this category of AgriTech. From simple measurements of temperature and humidity to complex airflow sensors directed towards the measurement of soil air permeability.

Today we can find advanced self-contained agricultural weather stations used all around the world in growing fields. These units are generally custom designed as per local crop and climatic conditions.

Some of the application for which these sensors are used are:

At DARKFRACTAL, we are dedicated towards continuous research and development of these sensors units, to facilitate efficiency and economic viability of technologies used in the agriculture sector. If you require any kind of assistance or just want to stay updated with all the new developments in this sector feel free to contact us. We’ll love to share our recent breakthroughs in the development of our modular systems. They are designed with the focus of profitability, efficiency and ease of operation on the ground, making them attractive for farms of all sizes.

As there are many resources available online regarding all the above discussed agricultural parameters, there are very few focused on airflow measurement and the relationship between air and soil in farming. So let’s conclude this short discussion with that, also we have provided some links to our live demos of hardware and data collection units.

Permeability of soil reflects the ease with which gases, liquids, or plant roots penetrate or pass through a bulk mass of soil or a layer of soil. Now if we talk about air permeability, it has a direct influence on many soil parameters and is one of the core components while calculating soil pore characteristics. With an assumption of a linear relationship between flow and pressure, airflow measurements are taken mostly at a fixed pressure difference. Through these measurements, we are trying to look for the data which reflects the pressure required to push a predetermined amount of air into the ground. The data collected can be used to calculate various properties of soil like soil type, structure, compaction and moisture levels.

SEO Competitor Analysis

To start your “SEO Competitor Analysis“, the first obvious step is to try to identify search competitors. The easiest way to do this is to search your selected keywords into search engines like google and see what pops-up. But to find more specific data for better insights you need to do this for all your top-rated keywords and record the data to analyse which domains comes-up most frequently and at what levels.

Rely more on insights developed from data rather than guessing. The logic behind that is, at the end of the day everyone wants to achieve good rankings for more than a few keywords. And one of the best ways to do that is to use online tools to automate and fast-track your data collection process. You can find many platforms not only provide data as per your query but also suggestions for optimization. To make life easier you can always leverage free audit offers from many website and firms.

One such offer is DF’s SEO Audit, just fill the form and you’ll receive a detailed SEO Report for FREE.

seo site listing animation

Once we have enough insights to identify our search competitors, we can use our data to perform competitive keyword analysis. This process mainly involves the identification of valuable keywords that your competitors rank highly for, which you don’t. This process is also known as keyword gap analysis.

While building individual data-driven case studies, we have to look for mainly two things:

  1. Valuable keywords that we are currently not ranking for
  2. High-volume keywords through which we can get a boost by ranking as higher as possible

Now our selected keywords can guide us to the next step. This step is all about content, as they are one of the biggest ranking factors. 

The best way to select a topic and create content around it involves the following three factors:

  1. Identify the highest-ranked content of your competitor
  2. Look for potential improvements so your content can stand out
  3. Start promoting to most relevant demographic of people

If you can gather accurate traffic data of a particular competitor, it’s another good technique to find out top-rated content.

Let’s move to the next step now. This step is called link gap analysis, which involves identifying and requesting relevant sites for links. After doing the above steps we have a good idea about the site ranking, keywords in use and content structure in your industry domain.

Now start sending requests to sites which are already linking to your SEO competitor, just demonstrate how your content is significantly better. Secondly, look for similar sites and repeat the same process.

user search intent animation

Now the final step is to dive into Google SERP and start understanding user search intent. SERP stands for “search results pages”. It represents data which appears when a user googles anything. SERP include organic search results, paid google ads results, featured snippets, knowledge graphs and video results.

Start googling your keywords and collecting data. While doing this you have to look for following patters:

  1. Keyword Monthly Volumeestimating the number of times a particular keyword is being searched within a specific region and search engine(google, bing, duckduckgo, etc.) 
  2. Keyword Difficultya number showing level of difficulty to rank for a particular keyword
  3. Organic CTRan estimate of how many users will click on a website result on a SERP
  4. Priority, identifying the potential value of a keyword, based on data collected in the above steps

Now you know almost everything to get started with your SEO competitor analysis. To assist you through the process, we have created a simple excel template which you can download from here. Feel free to comment down below or connect with us if you have any query or feedback.

Leverage data you collect from your competitor and
create a better experience for your user!

Home WORKSTATION Optimization Webinar ( Notes)

Antivirus / Security Tips

  • Top paid with most features : NORTON 360 Deluxe
  • Best in Budget : AVG Antivirus
  • TOP FREE: Windows Defender Security Centre, Keep it updated
  • If you are one of those people who are in a situation where they can’t spend any money on an antivirus and also can’t update your system regularly, we recommend using Avast Antivirus which is free with Epic Privacy Browser as your default browser.

Data Backup

  • For achieving best case scenario we recommended : 1 offline backup with 1 online backup
  • Overall best cloud service is GDrive because it gives 15 GB storage per account and provides best ecosystem for sharing with added layer of security.
  • Second Best is DropBox but gives only 2GB initially also have been in news for previous data breeches. But has one of the best referral programs and getting better day by day.


  • For removing junk and temporary files to speed up your system : CCleaner
  • Use Defragmentation tools to speed up your hard-disk speed, ignore if your system has SSD
  • For latest driver updates and management: Driver Booster from iobit
  • Uninstall Unwanted software


  • Restart Your Phone / Pull and reinsert SIM / Change Location
  • Disable Auto Update and monitor background data usage
  • For data monitoring in phones we recommend Glass Wire App

Mobile Speed Boosting Tricks

  • Change Access Point Name from Network Settings: There are 2 / 3 access points provided by all operators
  • Try out a single Network Type LTE (4G) or WCDMA (3G) from Network Settings
    If you are facing issues in while doing that, from you phone dialer dial ##4636## then open phone settings and select LTE only or WCDMA only
  • Rooted phones can also select a particular frequency as 4G uses many frequencies as compared to 3G. You can lockdown to a particular frequency which has the highest speed. For example, b3, b5, b40 is good for jio users


  • Neutral body position & posture
  • The screen should be on eye level to avoid strains on the neck and squinting of eyes
  • Neutral poisoning of keyboard and mouse
  • 20 20 20 rule: The rule says that for every 20 minutes spent looking at a screen, a person should look at something 20 feet away for 20 seconds
  • Take a 5-10 minute walk after sitting for an hour and drink a glass of water to stay hydrated
  • Lighting should not cause glare on screens, that’s why soft lights are recommended

Additional resource: Recommended Article: advice for your home office, kitchen, or bedroom


As these are very much dependent on person to person in these lockdown times, please feel free to comment below and we’ll answer those questions on the case to case basis.

Digital Footprint: Manage / Cover

Our digital footprint is much more than we think. It not only involves our active online activities like photos, tweets, social updates, etc. but also passive ones like a website collecting IP addresses, social media sharing and engagement data. These days, cookies and customized ads are always there to assist with login information, shopping or to make personalized suggestions based on our location or interests. But we have to keep in mind that a user profile created using digital footprint can contain personal information like interests, affiliations, demographics, religion, political inclination and much more.

In many corporate/industries, an online background check is a common practice by recruiters. We have seen individuals losing their job offers in worst-case scenarios. So all and all conclusion is that we all need to take greater responsibility when it comes to the digital footprint and then slowly learn to prevent data breaches and keep information private.

So lets Start!

Start Managing it Today!

  • Start Googling yourself: Know what’s out there about you. Search yourself every few months so you’re mindful of your pictures/videos/data other people have access to.
  • Set a Google alerts: After setting up this tool you’ll be able to get occasional alerts of whenever your names pops-up on the web.
  • Don’t disclose your personal data: Personal address, phone number, passwords or bank card numbers are one on the examples of sensitive data you might want to protect.
  • Think twice, post once: Think properly the implications of your post. Random emotions are temporary; online data lasts forever! For example: Never expose birthdays, nicknames, pet names etc. online, especially if you have used them in any of your passwords or user names (which is not a good idea generally).
  • Limit data sharing: Your data like any questionable image/video/tweet or anything else can be used to gather more information or harm you. So beware of what you are sharing with whom. Which are data is public or which is private.

Let’s Remove all traces too!

  • Check your browser & browser settings: Always use most up to date security and privacy measures while browsing. Clear your cookies regularly too.
    1. If you are just looking to avoid basic tracking which is used for general advertising use search engines like DuckDuckGo.
    2. If you are planning to completely go dark in most scenarios then use most recent versions of browsers like one from TOR Project.
  • Setup a separate email address for subscribing and queries: If you are using your regular email address (personal/professional) for subscribing and registering on web, then you are increasing chances of a digital trace on you by cyber criminals. I recommend you to setup a web-based email for all secondary activities on the web. Try to make it completely anonymous by not using your personal information and your home/office device to access it.
  • Keep an eye online platform settings: Online platforms from cloud services to social media to e-commerce platforms are valuable assets to our daily fast pace lifestyle. Keep yourself aware with all the privacy setting and their regular updates, on each platform you use. They may vary on the device to device, so you have to carry out through privacy sweeps regularly.
  • Keep an eye on data protection policies: To ensure everybody is handling certain issues properly, data protection policies are a must. Employee awareness and training under these policies is the most essential part of any security program. They comprise of the following kind of sections:
    1. Encryption policies
    2. Acceptable use policies
    3. Password policies
    4. Email policies
    5. Data processing policies


Computer security began immediately after first mainframes were developed. Successful organisation has multiple layers of security in place: i.e. Physical, Personal, Operations, Communications, network & information. Security is a balance between protection and availability. Sec SDLC [General System Development Life Cycle] is a methodology for the design and implementation of an information system in an organisation.

Information is considered to be the Backbone of the Modern world. So the need for protection is also important. Ethical hackers use the same methods to test and bypass a systems defence, but rather than taking advantage of any vulnerabilities found, they document them & provide actionable advice how to fix them so that the organisation can improve its overall security.

Let’s go a little back, and get introduced to art and science of writing hidden message in such a way that none other than sender and the recipient suspects the existence of the message. It can be also called information smuggling. It is called Steganography! It has a Greek origins and means “concealed writing”. Steganos means “Covered or Protected”. Graphei meaning “Writing”. So it is the practice of concealing message or information within other non-secret text or data.

For Detailed we recommend this DEFCON video to make it more clear!

While we are looking at YouTube videos, i strongly recommend the following video by Mr. Pavan Duggal taking about Cyber-law and Indian I.T. acts 👨‍⚖️⚖

Some mental notes you can make by watching above video:

India’s technology act 2000. Chapter 11 not only specify cyber-crime in India & their respective punishment in India, but also this particular legislation has amended the Indian penal code in such a manner to meet various offences under the Indian penal code, in sync with the requirement of the digital platforms. Now if in case u want to steal any computer source code or computer source documents then Be alerted because this activity is itself a cyber crime under sec 65 of the IT Act 2000. The same is punishable with 3 years imprisonment and ₹ 5 Lakh. Earlier the IT act 2000 made only Hacking a crime, but later 2008 amends came with much broader umbrella of computer offences. Like unauthorised task on any computers come within the ambit of these offences. Also 2008 amends says that if you actually publish or transmit content which is sexually explicit then you are further inviting an exposed to section 67-A , which is further an offence punishable with 5 years of imprisonment and fine. Earlier India was not concerned about child pornography as it thought it would be covered under the offense of pornography, But 2008 amends made it an offense. Not only publishing or transmitting but visiting a website that relates to child pornography it’s a serious offence punishable with 5 years of imprisonment and ₹ 5 lakh fine.

Also if you try to exploit the privacy of a person by capturing the images of private parts of a person without his/her knowledge, it’s an offense and is punishable with 3 years of imprisonment & ₹ 5 lakh fine. Also 2008 ammneds has added some new offence or example if you if you transmit any information using a computer which is offensive or has menace character it is a different offence under 66-A. If you try to misuse digital signature for fraudlent purpose then also its an offence under section 72 of the IT Act.

Identity theft offense is punishable with 3 years of imprisonment and fine under section 66-C. Also if u indulge in any activity the relates to cyber terrorism, it is a serious offense made punishable with life imprisonment and fine.

Hope this video was informative and might add something to you knowledge bank!!!

Still Confused? Final-One: Arduino vs RaspberryPi

If you are looking for a one-stop solution for the detailed specifications and comparison of different developer boards, this blog is for you only. The following article will give you an insight into the common developer boards Arduino and Raspberry Pi. Well, all of us know that a development board is nothing but a printed circuit board containing a microprocessor and the minimal support logic needed for an engineer to become acquainted with the microprocessor on the board and to learn to program it.

We even know the fact that Microcontrollers are integrated circuits that are basically tiny computers. It can run small simple software programmes. They are low powered enough that they can be powered by a small battery for days. But they are also capable of processing data fast enough then any human being can think. On the other hand, a microprocessor is a simple integrated circuit that comes up with all the functionalities of a central processing unit i.e. CPU of any computer.

Howsoever, these terms are highly confused with the other popular term i.e. Microprocessor. So, before moving into details let’s take a quick review regarding the basic difference between microprocessor and microcontroller:-





Presence of External Peripherals

External Circuits required

Components are embedded in it.




Overall System Cost



Processing Speed

Above 1GHz

8MHz-50 MHz

Power Saving System



Nature of Task Performed

More Complex

Less Complex or simpler



Well, the answer to the question asked above is purely on the requirements basis and vary from project to project and person to person’s preferences.

Let’s see why so:-

Arduino is not a computer in actual but it is a microcontroller motherboard. It is able to do only one process at a time over and over again. The major advantage that Arduino yield is that it is easy to use.

However, Raspberry Pi is a computer or better says a mini computer. Pi is a general purpose computer with Linux Operating System. Unlike Arduino, Pi has a capability of performing multiple tasks at a time i.e. Multitasking enabled. But it is more complex to use and more complicated than Arduino.

Let’s compare the two in depth to get a better clarity for the choices to be made:-





A Microcontroller Board A general Purpose Computer System
Comes with Boot Loader Comes with Linux OS
Used for Simple Repetitive Tasks without much processing power. Used for projects that requires more processing power.
Hardware Intensive Software Intensive
Projects without any Connectivity Projects requires Connectivity (WiFi or Bluetooth)
Projects include variety of Sensors Does not support Analog Input
Uses Arduino language based on C/C++ There is no limit on Programming Language
Processor speed of 16 MHz Processor Speed of 700 MHz
It is a collection of 3 things: – Hardware Prototype Platform, Arduino language and IDE and Libraries. Dedicated memory, processor, and a graphics card for output through HDMI
It has 8-bit AVR microcontroller and hardware support for SPI, I2C and Serial. It has 512 MB RAM, 700 MHz microprocessor and hardware support for SPI, I2C and Serial.
Hardware Design is Open Source. Hardware Design is Closed Source.


Let’s simplify the Confusion

– If you are aiming to interact with a lot of external Hardware components with your projects, then you must definitely go for Arduino.

– However, if you need to a lot of processing and requires a lot of software programmes to be written and operated simultaneously then you must go for Raspberry Pi.

Digging Deep:-

Although, given that you make your choices between the Arduino and Raspberry Pi, the tech market has come up with more varied choices which can help you to make a best suitable choice out of a niche. Let’s check out the furthermore options available within Arduino and Raspberry Pi one by one-


The basic idea and the features of Arduino have already been discussed above. There are many boards available that are considered to be Arduino compatible. You can also software to program the different boards which you can be download and i.e. the Arduino Development Environment. Almost everything is the Arduino world is considered to be open source. Now, let’s look into the different Arduino boards available:-




Arduino Uno
  • Built around ATMega 328p Microcontroller
  • 16 MHz
  • 14 digital input/output pins
  • 6 are pulse-width modulation
  • 6 analog inputs
  • 32 kB of Flash Memory
  • 2 kB of RAM
  • Input/Output pins work at 5V.
  • It is a great board to work with if you are new to the Arduino world.
  • PTH Version (Plated Through Hole)
  • SMD Version (Surface Mount Device)
SparkFun RedBoard
  • It has almost similar functionalities to Uno.
  • It can bind several features with different Arduino.
  • Cheaper.
  • Controlled Revision
Arduino Pro

  • Uses same ATMega328p Microcontrolller like Uno.
  • It has more or like same functionalities as Uno.
  • Comes without headers.
  • It has not been built in with the USB support.
  • Thus, a serial cable or FTDI Breakout is needed to program the board.
  • Two versions:

– 3.3V version (speed is reduced to 8MHz)

– 5V version (16 MHz of speed)

Arduino Pro Mini

  • It is exactly like Arduino Pro but in a mini version.
  • It also comes in 3.3 V and 5V versions.
Arduino Pro Micro

  • Uses ATmega32U4
  • Does not require Serial Cable or FTDI Breakout to program it.
  • There is a Micro USB port on the board.
  • 12 digital input/output pins.
  • 5 are Pulse-Width Modulation.
  • 4 analog input pins.
  • 32 kB of Flash Memory.
  • 2.5 kB of RAM.
  • It can also be used as USB device.
  • Two versions:
  • 3.3 V (8 MHz of speed)
  • 5 V (16 MHz of speed)
Arduino Micro View

  • Has built in LED Display
  • 64×48 pixels of resolutions
  • Uses ATMega328p microcontroller.
  • 12 digital I/O pins.
  • 6 analog pins.
  • Runs at 3.3 V
Arduino MEGA 2560
  • 16MHz
  • 54 digital I/O pins
  • 15 pins are PWM.
  • 16 analog input pins.
  • 256 kB of Flash Memory.
  • 8 kB of RAM.
  • 4 UARTs (Hardware Serial Ports)


Raspberry PI:-

The projects that use Raspberry Pi can be used for applications like Robotics, Gaming, Home Security, Automation and many more. Let’s look for different Raspberry Models available in the market.



Raspberry Pi 1

  • CPU: 700 MHz ARM Broadcom CPU.
  • GPU: Videocore IV
  • 512 MB of RAM.
  • SD Card Slot.
  • Connectivity: 4x USB, HDMI, Ethernet, 3.5mm audio jack.
Raspberry Pi 2

  • Quad Controller is SoC(System on Chip)
  • It has built-in CPU, GPU, DSP(Digital Signal Processing), SDRAM, USB Controller.
  • CPU: 900 MHz quad-core ARM Cortex A7
  • GPU: 250 MHz Broadcom VideoCore IV, OpenGL ES 2.0(24 GFLOPS),

1080p30 MPEG-2 and VC-1 decoder,

1080p30 h.264/MPEG-4 AVC high- profile decoder and encoder

  • 1 GB RAM (shared with GPU)
  • 40 GPIO pins.
  • 4 USB ports.
  • Ethernet Port (RJ-45)
  • 5V, 800mA, 4W via microUSB
  • VideoCOre IV 3D graphics core
  • Full HDMI port
  • DIspaly Interface (DSI)
  • 3.5 mm audio/composite video jack (TRRS).
  • Camera Interface (CSI).
  • Micro SD card Slot
  • Support full range of ARM GNU/Linux distributions.
Raspberry PI 3

  • Broadcom BCM2387 chipset
  • 1.2 GHz Quad-core ARM Cortex-A53
  • 802.11 bgn Wireless LAN and Bluetooth 4.1 (Bluetooth Classic and LE)
  • 1 GB RAM
  • 64 Bit CPU
  • 4x USB ports
  • 4 pole Stereo Output and Composite Video Port.
  • Full size HDMI
  • 10/100 Base T Ethernet Socketbr
  • CSI camera port for connecting the Raspberry Pi camera.
  • DSI display port for connecting the Raspberry Pi touch screen display
  • Micro SD port for loading your operating system and storing data
  • Micro USB power source
Raspberry Pi Zero

  • CPU: 1GHz ARM11 Broadcom CPU.
  • GPU: Videocore IV
  • 1GHz of processing speed.
  • 512 MB of RAM.
  • EEPROM type of computer memory.
  • USB interface.
  • MicroSD card slot.
  • Connectivity: 1x microUSB, mini-HDMI
  • OS: Linux
  • Connectors: Unpopulated 40-pin GPIO header, SPI, I2C
  • Camera Interface (CSI)


Given the specification, you now know all the different types and versions available for both Arduino and Raspberry Pi developer boards along with their specs and features. So, now you can easily define the requirements of your projects and can go out and grab the best and most suitable developer board corresponding to your choice and requirements as specified.

Decentralised IoT and Block Chain

IoT is no more a new term in today’s technological era. It has indeed revolutionised thousands of personal and professional ecosystems.
However, under the fascinating name of Internet of Things (IoT), we often overlook some of the key issues that already had or may arise with the growing needs and demands. The current IOT system relies on a centralized clinch of communication models involving centralized cloud databases/servers to identify & authenticate different devices attached to it, which seems to throw a great deal to us. But, will it be able to respond effectively to the growing need of the gigantic IOT world of tomorrow? And what about the expenses to install such large IOT system involving a huge number of devices in it. Ever thought what would happen if someday, the whole cloud server collapses or the centralized database encounters a failure? Won’t it be better if instead of two adjacent devices communicating via internet gets to communicate directly with each other?

Who’s the saviour here?
The answer to all such issues is the Decentralised IOT.

The Decentralized IoT is a heterodox method for holding up a communication. Moreover, unlike communications methods with centralized servers, it works on an entire network of computers such that there is no single point of vulnerability and won’t allow any single entity to control the network. Bitcoin was the first to bring this technology into the limelight as it was the first successful cryptocurrency that works on the brilliant decentralized network of computer systems. Bitcoin runs on BlockChain.

What is a BlockChain?

The blockchain is actually a digital ledger which records the data or the transaction made in bitcoin or cryptocurrency in a chronological manner. Originally, Block Chain was meant to power the Bitcoin, however, it is capable of doing much more than that.
The blockchain is minuscule of whole distributed ledger technologies that can be programmed to record and track anything of value, may it be financial data or medical health reports or any regular stats. Blockchains have indeed transformed the way of our communications.

Why Blockchains?
Here are few simplified reasons for which Blockchains proves to have a number of advantages over other technologies:-

1) The Way It Stores and Tracks Data:-
Blockchains stores information in batches called Blocks. These blocks are linked together in a chronological manner to form a continuous line, or better say, in a chain of data blocks.
If any change is intended in any particular record in a block then we don’t need to rewrite it, instead a new block is created which stores the information about the change in the respective block. Every change is recorded as with a creation of a new block in the ledger and thus it can easily be checked whenever required.

2) It Created Trust In The Data:-
Blockchain was designed to be decentralized and distributed across a large set of computers over the network. This decentralizing of the data and information reduces the ability for data tampering. How does it happen? Here are the few steps that are being followed:-
Firstly, a cryptographic puzzle must be solved to create a block.
The node which solves the puzzle shares the solution to all the nodes/computers on the network, as the proof-of-work.
The network verifies the puzzle solution for the block and if satisfied the block is added to the ledger.
The combination of all these enables verification of the block from each computer thus implying trust on each block of the chain.

3) No More Intermediaries:-
As the network builds trust for us, we can now directly rely on our data in real-time thus cutting down the intermediaries. As already discussed the current IoT technology relies on a single centralised server to authenticate and store data for and from different devices connected. However, with the use of Blockchain, the blocks of data has already been verified and so, it doesn’t need to be authenticated from any of the intermediate stations. The devices can directly communicate to each other knowing that the nodes are already authenticated and are truthful as they form a part of chain providing the restriction on any possibility for the data to get tempered. This will not only reduce time but also saves a lot amount of capital for us.

Blockchain & IoT
Blockchains, when coupled with IoT, brings a better way of its implementation. The devices enrolled under IoT will no longer have to communicate through the internet. They can directly communicate and access data over devices. Gone are the days, when IoT had huge installation and maintenance costs, now decentralized IoT along with Blockchains is the new solution. It has created a more and broader and clear picture of the progress in this field. This type of technology will no doubt, revolutionize the way we access, verify and transact our data and communicate with each other thus creating an unbelievable technological ecosystem for a bright future.